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prov·o·ca·tion - something that provokes, arouses, or stimulates. pant - to long eagerly; yearn. a collection of thoughts intended to provoke and inspire. these posts are hoping to encourage people to think, especially Christians, and pant even harder for the waterbrooks of the Lord. If you are not a believer in Christ Jesus, I welcome your perspective and encourage your investigation on these matters.

Thursday, August 31, 2006

Re: Inclusivism - A Concise Bibliography

This is my final post about Billy Graham and inclusivism (actually, I had not planned on writing any of these until I heard of his letter to the editor). I hope that these books, essays, and articles will be helpful in directing you to resources for your personal study. Admittedly so, whenever categories are provided, some level of subjectivity is determinative pertaining to what group I put the work in. Furthermore, some are not in either category because they have either gone both ways or cannot be easily categorized (Millard Erickson and Alister McGrath for example). Anyway, here it is. I will be adding this to my bibliography sidebar (to the right). Enjoy.

For Inclusivism:

Braaten, Carl E. No Other Gospel! Christianity Among the World’s Religions. Minneapolis: Augsburg Fortress, 1992.

Cobb, John B., and Clark H. Pinnock. Searching for an Adequate God: A Dialogue Between Process and Free Will Theists. Cambridge: Eerdmans, 2000.

Dupuis, Jacques. Toward a Christian Theology of Religious Pluralism. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis, 1997.

Edwards, David L. and John R.W. Stott. Essentials: A Liberal-Evangelical Dialogue. London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1988.

Grenz, Stanley J. Renewing the Center: Evangelical Theology in a Post-Theological Era. Grand Rapids: Baker, 2000.

Kung, Hans. Christianity & World Religions: Paths of Dialogue with Islam, Hinduism, and Buddhism. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis, 1993.

_________. “The World Religions in God’s Plan of Salvation.” In Christian Revelation and World Religions. ed. Josef Neuner. London: Burns & Oates, 1967.

Kung, Hans, and Jurgen Moltman, eds. Christianity Among World Religions. Edinburgh: T & T Clark, 1986.

Lewis, C.S. Mere Christianity. New York: Touchstone, 1996.

Lindbeck, George. The Nature of Doctrine: Religion and Theology in a Postliberal Age. Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1984.

McDermott, Gerald R. Can Evangelicals Learn from Other World Religions? Downer’s Grove, IL: InterVarsity, 2000.

Pannenberg, Wolfhart. “The Reality of God and the Gods in the Experience of Religions.” In vol. 1 of Systematic Theology. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1991.

Pinnock, Clark H. A Wideness in God’s Mercy: The Finality of Jesus Christ in a World of Religions. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1992.

_________. “Acts 4:12: No Other Name Under Heaven” in Through No Fault of Their Own?: The Fate of Those Who Have Never Heard. eds. William V. Crockett and James G. Sigountos, 107-15. Grand Rapids: Baker, 1991.

Punt, Neal. Unconditional Good News: Toward an Understanding of Biblical Universalism. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1980.

Race, Alan. Christians and Religious Pluralism: Patterns in the Christian Theology of Religions. London: SCM Press, 1983.

Rahner, Karl. Theological Investigations vol. 5: Later Writings. London: Darton, Longman and Todd, 1965.

_________. “Anonymous Christianity and the Missionary Task of the Church.” In vol. 12 of Theological Investigations. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis, 1982.

_________. “Anonymous Christians.” In vol. 6 of Theological Investigations. Baltimore: Helicon, 1969.

_________. “Jesus Christ in the Non-Christian Religions.” In vol. 17 of Theological Investigations. New York: Crossroad, 1981.

_________. “Observations on the Problem of the ‘Anonymous Christian.’” In vol. 10 of Theological Investigations. New York: Seabury, 1976.

_________. “On the Importance of the Non-Christian Religions for Salvation.” In vol. 18 of Theological Investigations. London: Darton, Longman & Todd, 1983.

_________. “The One Christ and the Universality of Salvation.” In vol. 16. of Theological Investigations. New York: Crossroad, 1983.

Sanders, John. No Other Name: An Investigation into the Destiny of the Unevangelized. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1992.

_________., ed. What About Those Who Have Never Heard? Three Views on the Destiny of the Unevangelized. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity, 1995.

Stackhouse, John G., ed. No Other Gods Before Me? Evangelicals and the Challenge of World Religions. Grand Rapids: Baker, 2001.

Stott, John R.W. The Contemporary Christian: Applying God’s Word to Today’s World. Downer’s Grove, IL: InterVarsity, 1992.

Tiessen, Terrance L. Irenaeus on the Salvation of the Unevangelized. Landham, MD: Scarecrow, 1993.

_________. Who Can Be Saved? Reassessing Salvation in Christ and World Religions. Downer’s Grove, IL: InterVarsity, 2004.

Wright, Chris. The Uniqueness of Jesus. Grand Rapids: Monarch Books, 2001.

Yong, Amos. Beyond the Impasse: Toward a Pneumatological Theology of Religions. Grand Rapids: Baker, 2003.

Articles for Inclusivism:

D’Costa, Gavin. “Karl Rahner’s Anonymous Christian—A Reappraisal.” Modern Theology 1/2 (January 1985): 131-48.

Fudge, Edward. “How Wide Is God’s Mercy?” Christianity Today 36 (April 27, 1992): 30-33.

Grenz, Stanley J. “Commitment and Dialogue: Pannenberg on Christianity and the Religions.” Journal of Ecumenical Studies 26 (Winter 1989): 196-210.

_________. “Toward an Evangelical Theology of Religions.” Journal of Ecumenical Studies 31 (Winter-Spring 1995): 49-65.

Osburn, Evert D. “Those Who Have Never Heard: Have They No Hope?” Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 32/3 (September 1989): 367-72.

Yong, Amos. “Whither Theological Inclusivism? The Development and Critique of an Evangelical Theology of Religions.” Evangelical Quarterly 71/4 (October 1999): 349-57.

Pinnock, Clark H. “Toward An Evangelical Theology of Religions.” Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 33/3 (September 1990): 359-68.

_________ “Why Is Jesus the Only Way?: No Other Way, Truth or Life Open to God.” Eternity 27/12 (1976): 12-34.

Sanders, John. “Is Belief in Christ Necessary for Salvation?” Evangelical Quarterly 60 (July 1988): 241-59.

Books/Essays Against Inclusivism:

Carson, D.A. The Gagging of God: Christianity Confronts Pluralism. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1996.

Fernando, Ajith. The Supremacy of Christ. Wheaton, IL: Crossway, 1995.

Geivett, R. Douglass and Clark Pinnock. “‘Misgivings’ and ‘Openness’: A Dialogue on Inclusivism Between R. Douglass Geivett and Clark Pinnock.” In Who Will Be Saved?: Defending the Biblical Understanding of God, Salvation, & Evangelism. edited by Paul R. House and Gregory A. Thornbury, 111-28. Wheaton, IL: Crossway, 2000.

Henry, Carl F.H. “Is It Fair?” in Through No Fault of Their Own? The Fate of Those Who Have Never Heard. eds. William V. Crockett and James G. Sigountos, 245-56. Grand Rapids: Baker, 1991.

House, Paul R. and Gregory A. Thornbury eds. Who Will Be Saved?: Defending the Biblical Understanding of God, Salvation, and Evangelism. Wheaton, IL: Crossway, 2000.

House, Paul R, Timothy George, Carl F.H. Henry, D.A. Carson, Scott Hafemann, and C. Ben Mitchell. “Forum Discussion on Inclusivism.” In Who Will Be Saved?: Defending the Biblical Understanding of God, Salvation, & Evangelism. edited by Paul R. House and Gregory A. Thornbury, 145-62. Wheaton, IL: Crossway, 2000.

Moo, Douglas. “Romans 2: Saved Apart from the Gospel?” in Through No Fault of Their Own?: The Fate of Those Who Have Never Heard. eds. William V. Crockett and James G. Sigountos, 137-45. Grand Rapids: Baker, 1991.

Nash, Ronald H. Is Jesus the Only Savior? Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1994.

Noll, Mark A. and David F. Wells. Christian Faith and Practice in the Modern World: Theology from an Evangelist Point of View. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1988.

Okholm, Dennis L. and Timothy R. Phillips, eds. Four Views on Salvation in a Pluralistic World. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1995.

Piper, John. Let the Nations Be Glad!: The Supremacy of God in Missions. Grand Rapids: Baker, 1993.

Plantinga, Alvin. “A Defense of Religious Exclusivism,” in Philosophy of Religion: An Anthology, 2nd ed. Louis Pojman ed. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, 1994. 528-44.

Ramesh, Richard P. The Population of Heaven. Chicago: Moody Press, 1994.

Ryken, Phillip Graham. Is Jesus the Only Way? Wheaton, IL: Crossway, 1999.

Sanders, J. Oswald. What of the Unevangelized? Ross-shire, UK: Christian Focus Publications, 1999.

Strange, Daniel. The Possibility of Salvation Among the Unevangelized: An Analysis of Inclusivism in Recent Evangelical Theology. Carlisle, UK: Paternoster Press, 2002.

Other Books:

Bavinck, J.H. The Church Between the Temple and Mosque: A Study of the Relationship Between the Christian Faith and Other Religions. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1966.

Crockett, William V. and James G. Sigountos, eds. Through No Fault of Their Own? The Fate of Those Who Have Never Heard. Grand Rapids: Baker, 1991.

Erickson, Millard J. How Shall They Be Saved? The Destiny of Those Who Do Not Hear of Jesus. Grand Rapids: Baker, 1996.

Jones, Hywel R. Only One Way: Do You Have to Believe in Christ to be Saved? Kent: Day One, 1996.

Jonsson, John H. Vatican II and World Religions. Louisville, KY: SBTS, 1986.

Karkkainen, Veli-Matti. An Introduction to the Theology of Religions: Biblical, Historical, & Contemporary Perspectives. Downer’s Grove, IL: InterVarsity, 2003.

Neill, Stephen. Christian Faith and Other Faiths: The Christian Dialogue with Other Religions. London: Oxford University Press, 1961.

Newbigin, Lesslie. The Gospel in a Pluralist Society. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1991.

Shenk, Calvin E. Who Do You Say That I Am?: Christians Encounter Other Religions. Scottsdale, PA: Herald Press, 1997.

Other Articles:

Ashcraft, Morris. “The Finality of Christ and the World Religions.” Southwestern Journal of Theology 21/2 (Spring 1979): 23-39.

Blue, J. Ronald. “Untold Billions: Are They Really Lost?” Bibliotheca Sacra 138/52 (Oct-Dec 1981): 338-50.

Brown, Harold. “How Crowded Will Hell Be?” Christianity Today 36/10 (September 14, 1992): 39-40.

Campbell, Iain D. “The Possibility of Salvation Among the Unevangelized: An Analysis of Inclusivism in Recent Evangelical Theology.” Westminster Theological Journal 65/2 (Fall 2003): 390-92.

Erickson, Millard J. “Hope for Those Who Have Never Heard? Yes, But . . . .” Evangelical Missions Quarterly 11/2 (April 1975): 122.

_________. “The Destiny of the Unevangelised.” Bibliotheca Sacra. 152 (January-March 1995): 3-15; 152 (April-June 1995): 113-44; 152 (July-September 1995): 259-72.

Ferrante, Joseph. “The Final Destiny of Those Who Have Not Heard the Gospel.” Trinity Studies 1/1 (Fall 1971): 55-62.

McWilliams, Warren. “Spirit Christology and Inclusivism: Clark Pinnock’s Evangelical Theology of Religions.” Perspectives in Religious Studies 24 (Fall 1997): 325-36.

Reichenbach, Bruce R. “Inclusivism and the Atonement.” Faith and Philosophy 16/1 (January 1999): 43-54.

Richard, Ramesh P. “Soteriological Inclusivism and Dispensationalism.” Bibliotheca Sacra 151 (January-March 1994): 85-108.

Wright, Christopher J.H. “The Christian and Other Religions: The Biblical Evidence.” Themelios 9/2 (January 1984): 4-15.

Note: Future Bibliographies in the works include: Universalism and Hell, John Hick/Pluralism, David F. Wells, and Billy Graham's Theology of Evangelism and Conversion.


Blogger blake white said...

Thanks for this. Is John Stott an inclusivist?? Seems inconsistent.

9/02/2006 10:12:00 AM

Blogger Timmy said...


I would call Stott a "soft inclusivist" who takes an eschatologically hopeful view where he argues against the idea that "only a few will be saved." He also adopts the post-enlightenment agnostic approach of McGrath. Below is a quote from his book The Contemporary Christian, but you would find more from another source, namely

Edwards, David L. and John R.W. Stott. Essentials: A Liberal-Evangelical Dialogue. London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1988.

Here's the quote:

"What we do not know, however, is exactly how much knowledge and understanding of the gospel people need before they can cry to God for mercy and be saved. In the Old Testament, people were certainly 'justified by grace through faith,' even though they had little knowledge or expectation of Christ. Perhaps there are others today in a somewhat similar position. They konw they are sinful and guilty before God, and that they cannot do anything to win his favour, so in self-despair they call upon the God they dimly perceive to save them. If God does save such, as many evangelicals tentatively believe, their salvation is still only by grace, only through Christ, only by faith."

And later he says,

"Although we have solid biblical grounds for cherishing this expectation [that the final number of God's redeemed people will be countless], we are not told how God will achieve it."

Source: The Contemporary Christian, 319.

I would call Stott a soft inclusivist because he argues that there will be some who will be saved apart from specific knowledge about Jesus Christ, who through general revelation (content) trust in God but not in the person of Jesus Christ. This is a soft position, contrary to Pinnock, Sanders, et al., but I do not see how one could call Stott an exclusivist. I will see if I can get some qotes from the other book aforementioned.

Hope that helps.

9/02/2006 01:50:00 PM

Blogger blake white said...

Thanks bro. That helps. I do remeber now that Piper goes after Stott (at least in the footnotes) in 'Let the Nations Be Glad.' See you in class.

9/04/2006 09:46:00 PM

Blogger -sirhemlock@yahoo.com said...

Stott is a representative of a slightly nuanced category: Agonostic But Open to the Inclusivist Position: "I believe the most Christian stance is to remain agnostic on this question.... The fact is that God, alongside the most solemn warnings about our responsibility to respond to the gospel, has not revealed how he will deal with those who have never heard it." (John Stott, Evangelical Essentials: A Liberal-Evangelical Dialogue (Downers Grove, Ill.: InterVarsity, 1988), 327). Similarly, Timothy Philips, Aida Besanton Spencer, and Tite Tienou "prefer to leave the matter in the hands of God." (Through No Fault of Their Own, 259, footnote. 3). For one of the best online defenses of Inclusivism see

12/06/2006 06:19:00 AM

Blogger Samuel Maynes said...

If you are interested in some new ideas on religious pluralism and the Trinity, please check out my website at www.religiouspluralism.ca. It previews my book, which has not been published yet and is still a “work-in-progress.” Your constructive criticism would be very much appreciated.

My thesis is that an abstract version of the Trinity could be Christianity’s answer to the world need for a framework of pluralistic theology.

In a constructive worldview: east, west, and far-east religions present a threefold understanding of One God manifest primarily in Muslim and Hebrew intuition of the Deity Absolute, Christian and Krishnan Hindu conception of the Universe Absolute Supreme Being; and Shaivite Hindu, Buddhist, Taoist apprehension of the Destroyer (meaning also Consummator), Unconditioned Absolute, or Spirit of All That Is and is not. Together with their variations and combinations in other major religions, these religious ideas reflect and express our collective understanding of God, in an expanded concept of the Holy Trinity.

The Trinity Absolute is portrayed in the logic of world religions, as follows:

1. Muslims and Jews may be said to worship only the first person of the Trinity, i.e. the existential Deity Absolute Creator, known as Allah or Yhwh, Abba or Father (as Jesus called him), Brahma, and other names; represented by Gabriel (Executive Archangel), Muhammad and Moses (mighty messenger prophets), and others.

2. Christians and Krishnan Hindus may be said to worship the first person through a second person, i.e. the experiential Universe or "Universal” Absolute Supreme Being (Allsoul or Supersoul), called Son/Christ or Vishnu/Krishna; represented by Michael (Supreme Archangel), Jesus (teacher and savior of souls), and others. The Allsoul is that gestalt of personal human consciousness, which we expect will be the "body of Christ" (Mahdi, Messiah, Kalki or Maitreya) in the second coming – personified in history by Muhammad, Jesus Christ, Buddha (9th incarnation of Vishnu), and others.

3. Shaivite Hindus, Buddhists, and Confucian-Taoists seem to venerate the synthesis of the first and second persons in a third person or appearance, ie. the Destiny Consummator of ultimate reality – unqualified Nirvana consciousness – associative Tao of All That Is – the absonite* Unconditioned Absolute Spirit “Synthesis of Source and Synthesis,”** who/which is logically expected to be Allah/Abba/Brahma glorified in and by union with the Supreme Being – represented in religions by Gabriel, Michael, and other Archangels, Mahadevas, Spiritpersons, etc., who may be included within the mysterious Holy Ghost.

Other strains of religion seem to be psychological variations on the third person, or possibly combinations and permutations of the members of the Trinity – all just different personality perspectives on the Same God. Taken together, the world’s major religions give us at least two insights into the first person of this thrice-personal One God, two perceptions of the second person, and at least three glimpses of the third.

* The ever-mysterious Holy Ghost or Unconditioned Spirit is neither absolutely infinite, nor absolutely finite, but absonite; meaning neither existential nor experiential, but their ultimate consummation; neither fully ideal nor totally real, but a middle path and grand synthesis of the superconscious and the conscious, in consciousness of the unconscious.

** This conception is so strong because somewhat as the Absonite Spirit is a synthesis of the spirit of the Absolute and the spirit of the Supreme, so it would seem that the evolving Supreme Being may himself also be a synthesis or “gestalt” of humanity with itself, in an Almighty Universe Allperson or Supersoul. Thus ultimately, the Absonite is their Unconditioned Absolute Coordinate Identity – the Spirit Synthesis of Source and Synthesis – the metaphysical Destiny Consummator of All That Is.

For more details, please see: www.religiouspluralism.ca

Samuel Stuart Maynes

6/13/2014 10:41:00 AM


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